The Ends of History: Questioning the Stakes of Historical Reason

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For this reason, placement assessments are administered before a course or program begins, and the basic intent is to match students with appropriate learning experiences that address their distinct learning needs. Screening assessments may take a wide variety of forms in educational settings, and they may be developmental, physical, cognitive, or academic.


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A preschool screening test, for example, may be used to determine whether a young child is physically, emotionally, socially, and intellectually ready to begin preschool, while other screening tests may be used to evaluate health, potential learning disabilities, and other student attributes. They often use a multiple-choice format, though some include open-ended, short-answer questions.


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  • Historically, standardized tests featured rows of ovals that students filled in with a number-two pencil, but increasingly the tests are computer-based. Standardized tests can be administered to large student populations of the same age or grade level in a state, region, or country, and results can be compared across individuals and groups of students.

    Church History: Complete Documentary AD 33 to Present

    Standardized tests and high-stakes tests may or may not be based on specific learning standards, and individual schools and teachers may develop their own standards-referenced or standards-based assessments. Common assessments are used to encourage greater consistency in teaching and assessment among teachers who are responsible for teaching the same content, e. Common assessments share the same format and are administered in consistent ways—e. Educators will often use collaboratively developed common assessments, scoring guides, rubrics, and other methods to evaluate whether the work produced by students shows that they have learned what they were expected to learn.

    Portfolio materials can be collected in physical or digital formats, and they are often evaluated to determine whether students have met required learning standards. Reform While educational assessments and tests have been around since the days of the one-room schoolhouse, they have increasingly assumed a central role in efforts to improve the effectiveness of public schools and teaching.

    1. Varieties of business ethics

    The law also requires that students be tested annually in grades and at least once in grades in reading and mathematics. While the No Child Left Behind Act is one of the most controversial and contentious educational policies in recent history, and the technicalities of the legislation are highly complex, it is one example of how assessment results are being used as an accountability measure.

    In Hus began preaching in Prague demanding the reformation of the Church. Hus tried to delineate the moral failings of clergy, bishops, and even the papacy from his pulpit. Like Wycliffe, Hus spoke out against indulgences.

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    The Cold War: Causes, Major Events, and How it Ended - History

    Hus asserted that no pope or bishop had the right to take up the sword in the name of the Church; that a Christian should pray for his enemies and bless those who curse him; and that a person obtains forgiveness of sins by true repentance, not by a donation of money to the church.

    The very last penny which an old woman has hidden in her bundle for fear of thieves or robbery will not be saved. The villainous priest will grab it. In response, three men from the lower classes who openly called the indulgences a fraud were beheaded. They were later considered the first martyrs of the Hussite Church.

    He arranged for a general council to convene in November , at Konstanz in southern Germany, on Lake Constance just across from Switzerland. The Council of Constance became the 16th ecumenical council recognized by the Catholic Church. A few weeks after his arrival in Konstanz, Hus was arrested and thrown into the dungeon of the Dominican monastery.

    In December a formal investigation against Hus began, but Hus was not allowed an advocate for his defense. Transferred to the castle of the Archbishop of Konstanz, Hus was kept for 73 days, separated from his friends, chained day and night, poorly fed, and ill. On June 5, , his trial began, and Hus was moved to a Franciscan monastery. He declared himself willing to recant if his errors should be proven to him from the Bible, but otherwise defended his reformist protests against the Church.

    In addition, this demonstration of the overwhelming power of the R-7 missile—seemingly capable of delivering a nuclear warhead into U. In , the U. Army under the direction of rocket scientist Wernher von Braun, and what came to be known as the Space Race was underway. That same year, President Dwight Eisenhower signed a public order creating the National Aeronautics and Space Administration NASA , a federal agency dedicated to space exploration, as well as several programs seeking to exploit the military potential of space. Still, the Soviets were one step ahead, launching the first man into space in April Kennedy made the bold public claim that the U.

    Soviets, in turn, were pictured as the ultimate villains, with their massive, relentless efforts to surpass America and prove the power of the communist system. The committee began a series of hearings designed to show that communist subversion in the United States was alive and well. In Hollywood , HUAC forced hundreds of people who worked in the movie industry to renounce left-wing political beliefs and testify against one another. More than people lost their jobs.

    The Historian's Use of Sectionalism and Vice Versa

    Soon, other anticommunist politicians, most notably Senator Joseph McCarthy , expanded this probe to include anyone who worked in the federal government. Thousands of federal employees were investigated, fired and even prosecuted. The fight against subversion at home mirrored a growing concern with the Soviet threat abroad.

    Many American officials feared this was the first step in a communist campaign to take over the world and deemed that nonintervention was not an option. Truman sent the American military into Korea, but the war dragged to a stalemate and ended in Other international disputes followed. In the early s, President Kennedy faced a number of troubling situations in his own hemisphere. Nowhere was this more apparent than in Vietnam, where the collapse of the French colonial regime had led to a struggle between the American-backed nationalist Ngo Dinh Diem in the south and the communist nationalist Ho Chi Minh in the north.

    However, what was intended to be a brief military action spiraled into a year conflict.

    Low-Stakes Writing and Critical Thinking

    Almost as soon as he took office, President Richard Nixon began to implement a new approach to international relations. To that end, he encouraged the United Nations to recognize the communist Chinese government and, after a trip there in , began to establish diplomatic relations with Beijing. In , he and Soviet premier Leonid Brezhnev signed the Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty SALT I , which prohibited the manufacture of nuclear missiles by both sides and took a step toward reducing the decades-old threat of nuclear war.